Book Name: Essential PHYSICS By: Deepanwita Chattopadhyay
Ms. Deepanwita Chattopadhyay is a postgraduate in Electronics Engineering from the Department of Radio Physics & Electronics, Calcutta University. After brief stints at the Centre for Applied Research in Electronics, IIT, Delhi and the Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, BITS, Pilani, she joined the telecom advisory practice of ICICI Bank Ltd. in 1994. As a telecom consultant she advised both govement agencies and the private sector on telecom regulation & policy, convergence issues, market forecasts and entry strategies. Her experience with knowledge driven sectors and interest in networking and knowledge management led her to head IKP Knowledge Park, the first professionally managed wet lab Research Park in India. As Chief Executive Officer of IKP Knowledge Park Deepanwita Chattopadhyay is responsible for creating an innovation and knowledge hub in India and the region. Her current interests are in setting a process for nurturing innovative companies and doping a sustainable innovation cluster.
AIR Air is everywhere and fills the space all around us. It is invisible and mixture of gases consisting of mainly nitrogen and oxygen and many other gases. Air has weight, warm air is lighter than cold air. Warm air moves and takes more space, where warm air rises above the colder air which is havier. Air exert pressure, nature tries to equalize pressure everywhere but whenever there is difference in pressure air rushes from high pressure region to low pressure region. Air pressure is not constant at all places on earth, as sea level pressure of air is more and as climb above sea level the pressure decrease.
WEATHER The most important causes of weather is the heating and cooling of air, heat from sun warms the land and water, both water and land then warms air. Air around us moves because it is heated by sun. Different parts of earth receive different amount of heat. The land is heated to higher temperature than sea. During the day air on land become warm and rise, and cool air from Sea takes its place, we can measure the wind speed and direction. WINDVANES shows direction and ANEMOMETER is used to measure speed
WATER Water is life. Things in water float as well as sink. The golden rule of floating “a body floats in water when the Upthrust on body is equal to the weight of the body and if there is no Upthrust on things they do not float and it sink.” The surface water has skin, but does not really like hot milk, only top layer of water molecules behaving like a skin and it deals to surface tension.
MOTION All the things on the earth moves. Living things moves itself and non-living things need a push or pull to get in motion. The things are at rest and some are in motion. The movement of body depend on Inertia. Inertia of motion is depends upon mass.
Pull or Push is require to start or stop the movement of body and pull /push is called as force. The force fight against the inertia of a body. The directions of force is important for the movement of body. The different forces are used in day today life. Simple machines are used for help of motion.
SOUND We can hear different kind of sounds. Sound can be of two type’s natural sound and artificial sound. the sound that occur in nature such as those animal's, trees, peoples and by other natural phenomenon are natural sound. The sound made by radio, television, musical instruments, machine etc. are artificial sound.
Sound can be pleasant or unpleasant. When the sound waves hits of cliff or a wall, it bounce back and the sound is heard again, reflected sound is called an echo. The change in sharpness of sound is noticeable in all moving sources of sound is called Droppler effect.
HEAT The sun and fire are source of heat which heat air first and water latter. Sun is main source of heat on earth. Burning MG causes fire which produces heat, heat van be generated by mechanical energy, electrical energy and nuclear energy ad well. Temperature is measured in Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin. Heat can travel in three ways that is conduction, convection and radiation, heat energy is required for melting and boiling of solid materials and liquid also.
MAGNETISM Anything that has a property of attracting iron is known as magnet. The magnet are generally made up of iron or steel and they can also made of nickel or cobalt. A magnet has an invisible force which pull or pushes certain things, this property is magnetism. By hit or heating magnet is demagnetized. Electric current is also used to make magnet called electromagnet.
ELECTRICITY Electricity is a greatest friend of ours, two kind of electricity is static electricity android current electricity, electricity that causes lighting spark, crackling noise and attracts objects and is contained in storm clouds, nylon, and plastic is called static electricity. Electricity that flows through wires and does work for us like lighting torch or working fan is called current electricity.
LIGHT Light is messenger that tells us about surrounding it helps us to see shape and colors. Natural sources of light is sun. Artificial sources of light are fire, oil lamp, candles, gas light and lighting through electricity. Light always travels in straight line, most light reflect and bounce from polished or shiny surfaces which falls on them. Light bends when it passes from one medium to another medium at surface between them. Ordinary light, white light or natural light from sun made up of seven color.
CONCLUSION This books contain very good content about “Air, Weather, Motion, Sound, Heat, Magnetism, Electricity and light”. This book has simple and basic science which we perform directly or indirectly in day today life. Every topics are explained with example so well that it understand easily. Activity given in this book are good and easy to perform and understand the concept. I enjoyed this activities very much. I suggest everyone to read this book to know about simple science…